Detainees regarded such preachers with nothing but contempt. Despite this, he said that in order for abuse to remain legal, Mau Mau suspects must be beaten mainly on their upper body, "vulnerable parts of the body should not be struck, particularly the spleen, liver or kidneys", and it was important that "those who administer violence ... should remain collected, balanced and dispassionate". ", Author Wangari Maathai indicates that in 1954, three out of every four Kikuyu men were in detention, and that land was taken from detainees and given to collaborators. Majdalany also says the British simply used the name as a label for the Kikuyu ethnic community without assigning any specific definition.. Some settlers flogged their servants for petty offences. En 1920, elle prend le nom de protectorat du Kenya. The Mau Mau Uprising (1952–1960), also known as the Mau Mau Rebellion, the Kenya Emergency, and the Mau Mau Revolt, was a war in the British Kenya Colony (1920–1963) between the Kenya Land and Freedom Army (KLFA), also known as Mau Mau, and the British authorities.. Dominated by the Kikuyu people, Meru people and Embu people, the KLFA also comprised units of Kamba and Maasai peoples … .Â .Â . 2 (Summer, 1953), pp. The operation began on 24 April 1954 and took two weeks, at the end of which 20,000 Mau Mau suspects had been taken to Langata, and 30,000 more had been deported to the reserves. P. Leroux, « Indépendances, trahison et rédemption : Judas dans le roman postcolonial. Muthoni was never caught in the forest. Le premier délivré dès 1950, le serment d’unité « was the general oath, administered extensively to as many Kikuyu as possible with the obvious intention of secretly uniting, disciplining and fostering political consciousness and commitment to nationalist struggle » et s’accompagne d’une participation financière et d’une désobéissance aux lois coloniales. Commandants were told to clamp down hard on intra-camp oathing, with several commandants hanging anyone suspected of administering oaths. L’offensive Mau Mau se déroule entre mars 1953 et avril 1954. , Mau Mau militants were guilty of numerous war crimes. The response of the colonial administration was a fierce crackdown on the rebels, resulting in many deaths. Mau Mauswas the name of a 1950s street gangin New York City.  Erskine's arrival did not immediately herald a fundamental change in strategy, thus the continual pressure on the gangs remained, but he created more mobile formations that delivered what he termed "special treatment" to an area. , On 20 October 1952, Governor Baring signed an order declaring a state of emergency.  The nature of fighting in Kenya led Winston Churchill to express concern in 1908 about how it would look if word got out: One hundred and sixty Gusii have now been killed outright without any further casualties on our side. Largely confined to the Kikuyu tribe, the Mau Mau rebels were poorly armed with no outside source of weapons and little financial support. Même quand des tentatives d’apaisement des tensions ont lieu elles échouent à cause des conceptions ambivalentes des partis. , On 6 June 2013, the foreign secretary, William Hague, told parliament that the UK government had reached a settlement with the claimants. The first attempt to form a countrywide political party began on 1 October 1944. FANDOM. A Grain of Wheat. . Au total la révolte a causé la mort de plus de 11 000 Mau Mau et plus de 30 000 arrestations. At once, the room erupted in cheers.  Though declared a colony in 1920, the formal British colonial presence in Kenya began with a proclamation on 1 July 1895, in which Kenya was claimed as a British protectorate. Quant à l’origine du terme Mau Mau, il n’a aucune signification en kikuyu. Native Kenyan political activity was permitted to resume at the end of the military phase of the Emergency. , For an extended period of time, the chief British weapon against the forest fighters was air power.  By the 1930s, and for the Kikuyu in particular, land had become the number one grievance concerning colonial rule, the situation so acute by 1948 that 1,250,000 Kikuyu had ownership of 2,000 square miles (5,200Â km2), while 30,000 British settlers owned 12,000 square miles (31,000Â km2), albeit most of it not on traditional Kikuyu land. Allegations about beatings and violence were widespread. Leakey ou I. Leigh (une femme de colon) qui ont diffusé des informations souvent erronées sur les serments. "We did not have our own jails to hold an informant in, so we would strangle him and then cut his tongue out." The Overseas Branch of the British Red Cross commented on the "women who, from progressive undernourishment, had been unable to carry on with their work". Parmi les loyalistes, on constitue des Home Guards, des milices kikuyus qui pratiquent de nombreuses exactions et font régner l’ordre et la terreur dans les populations sympathisantes de la révolte, mais qui sont aussi les premières cibles des Mau Mau.  In terms of lost acreage, the Masai and Nandi people were the biggest losers of land.  To placate settler opinion, one battalion of British troops, from the Lancashire Fusiliers, was also flown in from Egypt to Nairobi on the first day of Operation Jock Scott. The entire wiki with photo and video galleries for each article. The term was first used during a pastoralists revolt against de-stocking that took place in 1938 led by Muindi Mbingu during which he urged the colonists to leave Kenya so that his people (the kamba) could live freely like the time of 'Our Grandfathers' (Twenda kwikala ta maau mau maitu, tuithye ngombe ta Maau mau maitu, nundu nthi ino ni ya maau mau maitu). Le cas le plus répandu est celui de l’ahoi, réduit à un simple statut d’employé agricole. Toutefois, que ce soit dans les Hauts Plateaux, les réserves ou à Nairobi, la majorité des individus demeure désœuvrée, dépourvue de moyen et déconnectée des réseaux de solidarité traditionnel parfois, conduisant tout droit à la criminalité qui explose dans les années 1940. Malgré les privations et les interdictions une classe politique kényane parvient à émerger. Leur productivité porte préjudice aux fermes des colons, pourtant subventionnées. Ainsi, en 1950 des squatters expulsés sont réinstallés dans des propriétés à Olenguruone.  KASU changed its name to the Kenya African Union (KAU) in 1946. The response of the colonial administration was a fierce crackdown on the rebels, resulting in many deaths. This tribe was moved backwards and forwards so as to secure for the Crown areas which could be granted to Europeans. This article is about the conflict in Kenya. For more on Anderson's reaction to the 'missing' papers, see: October 2017 Kenyan presidential election, List of British Detention Camps during the Mau Mau Uprising, Foreign and Commonwealth Office migrated archives, Radical Chic & Mau-Mauing the Flak Catchers, "Daniel Goldhagen and Kenya: recycling fantasy", "ClassÂ V; House of Commons Debate, 1Â June 1894", "Native Labour; House of Commons Debate, 10Â November 1937", "When the Mau Mau Used a Biological Weapon â Owaahh", "Mau Mau uprising: Bloody history of Kenya conflict", "Historian, Kenya native's book on Mau Mau revolt", "Mau Mau case: UK government accepts abuse took place", "Ciokaraine: The Story of the Female Meru Diviner", "British colonial files released following legal challenge", "Taking on the Boss: The quiet whistleblowers on events in Kenya deserve praise", "Secret memo gave guidelines on abuse of Mau Mau in 1950s", "The African Press in Kenya, 1945â1952", "Kenya: UK expresses regret over abuse as Mau Mau promised payout", "Sins of colonialists lay concealed for decades in secret archive", "British-backed Mau Mau memorial set to open in rare colonial apology", "Mau Mau veterans to sue over British 'atrocities, "Mau Mau case: UK government cannot be held liable", "Kenyan veterans celebrate first victory in compensation claim", "In court to face the ghosts of the past", "Kenyans sue UK for alleged colonial human rights abuses", "Mau Mau victims seek compensation from UK for alleged torture", "Mau Mau torture claim Kenyans win right to sue British government", "Mau Mau Kenyans allowed to sue UK government", "Torture device No 1: the legal rubber stamp", "Kenyans were tortured during Mau Mau rebellion, High Court hears", "Brutal beatings and the 'roasting alive' of a suspect: what secret Mau Mau files reveal", "My critics ignored evidence of torture in Mau Mau detention camps", "New documents show how Britain sanctioned Mau Mau torture", "Cabinet 'hushed up' torture of Mau Mau rebels", 'Whether the Government will make available to this House the text of the Cowan plan', "Tales of brutality and violence that could open the claims floodgate", "It's not just Kenya. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mau Mau Uprising. While the Pipeline was primarily designed for adult males, a few thousand women and young girls were detained at an all-women camp at Kamiti, as well as a number of unaccompanied young children. Le refus des paysans qui se coalisent et prêtent serment tous ensemble les uns envers les autres (femmes et enfants compris) et s’engagent dans une politique de désobéissance civile qui conduit à leur expulsion.  Suppressing the Mau Mau Uprising in the Kenyan colony cost Britain Â£55Â million and caused at least 11,000 deaths among the Mau Mau and other forces, with some estimates considerably higher. Add new page. She was able to crawl to safety with a gunshot wound in her shoulder, but all the others were killed. , European missionaries and native Kenyan Christians played their part by visiting camps to evangelise and encourage compliance with the colonial authorities, providing intelligence, and sometimes even assisting in interrogation. The most notable include the Nandi Resistance of 1895â1905; the Giriama Uprising of 1913â1914; the women's revolt against forced labour in Murang'a in 1947; and the Kolloa Affray of 1950. Nobody ever stood trial for the massacre. , There is continuing debate about Mau Mau's and the rebellion's effects on decolonisation and on Kenya after independence. Les premiers y voient un dédommagement pour les spoliations passées, tandis que les autorités coloniales soumettent ce don à des conditions de production spécifique. It stars Rock Hudson as the colonial and Sidney Poitier as the native Kenyan.  The success of this settler economy would depend heavily on the availability of land, labour and capital, and so, over the next three decades, the colonial government and settlers consolidated their control over Kenyan land, and 'encouraged' native Kenyans to become wage labourers. Widely regarded as a revolutionary leader, he led the armed military struggle against the British colonial regime in …  Frank FÃ¼redi, in The Mau Mau War in Perspective, suggests this was due to a British policy of divide and rule but fails to cite any contemporary British government documents which support this assertion. The Government will also support the construction of a memorial in Nairobi to the victims of torture and ill-treatment during the colonial era. Le caractère inégalitaire de la société Kikuyu à l’égard des femmes s’est estompé. This ethnopsychiatric analysis guided British psychological warfare, which painted Mau Mau as "an irrational force of evil, dominated by bestial impulses and influenced by world communism", and the later official study of the uprising, the Corfield Report. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. , There continues to be vigorous debate within Kenyan society and among the academic community within and without Kenya regarding the nature of Mau Mau and its aims, as well as the response to and effects of the uprising. Les hommes sont chargés des affaires sociales et politiques, de la garde des troupeaux, des travaux de forces, de la fabrication des outils, de la chasse, de la récolte et de la guerre ; les femmes quant à elles s’occupent du labourage, des récoltes, du transport du bois et de l’eau, de la cuisine (sauf la viande). By January 1959, the camp had a population of 506 detainees, of whom 127 were held in a secluded "closed camp". ↑ "Mau Mau Activities and the Unrest in Kenya" by Malcolm Davies The Antioch Review Vol. , A retaliatory massacre was immediately perpetrated by Kenyan security forces who were partially overseen by British commanders. . Ce système de Conseil a donc tendance à casser la solidarité générationnelle originelle puisque de tels évènements n’interviennent pas au même moment dans la vie de chacun. Les forces britanniques ont souvent recours à des bombardements qui impactent fortement la détermination des combattants si l’on en croit les écrits de guérilleros. If you can improve it, please do. The alleged member or sympathiser of Mau Mau would be interrogated in order to obtain an admission of guiltâspecifically, a confession that they had taken the Mau Mau oathâas well as for intelligence..  Waruhiu had been one of the strongest supporters of the British presence in Kenya. , The Pipeline operated a white-grey-black classification system: 'whites' were cooperative detainees, and were repatriated back to the reserves; 'greys' had been oathed but were reasonably compliant, and were moved down the Pipeline to works camps in their local districts before release; and 'blacks' were the so-called 'hard core' of Mau Mau. Mau Mau Uprising - Deaths and Atrocities - Lari Massacre. According to his widow, British soldiers forced pins into his fingernails and buttocks and squeezed his testicles between metal rods and two others were castrated. On dénombre moins de 250 décès de Blancs pendant le conflit contre des milliers chez les Africains. Operation Anvil was a British military operation during the Mau Mau Uprising where British toops attempted to remove Mau Mau from Nairobi and place them in Langata Camp or reserves. Women formed a core part of the Mau Mau, especially in maintaining supply lines. , Another possible origin is a mishearing of the Kikuyu word for oath: "muuma". La révolte Mau Mau puise à n’en pas douter dans tous ces registres. , The onset of the Emergency led hundreds, and eventually thousands, of Mau Mau adherents to flee to the forests, where a decentralised leadership had already begun setting up platoons.  One provincial commissioner blamed child hunger on parents deliberately withholding food, saying the latter were aware of the "propaganda value of apparent malnutrition". The operation began on 24 April 1955 and took two weeks, at the end of which 20,000 Mau Mau suspects had been taken to Langata, and 30,000 more had been deported to the reserves.